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Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974, ending the Portuguese Colonial War.

Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories.

Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, and in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale (Port of Cale).

During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale.

These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies.

Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing.

A few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements (such as Tavira) were also founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians.

Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers, and many Portuguese-based creoles.After the Battle of São Mamede, where Portuguese forces led by Afonso Henriques defeated forces led by his mother, Theresa of Portugal, the County of Portugal affirmed its sovereignty and Afonso Henriques styled himself Prince of Portugal.He would later be proclaimed King of Portugal at the Battle of Ourique in 1139 and was recognised as such by neighbouring kingdoms in 1143.The Carthaginians, Rome's adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies.During the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula was annexed to the Roman Republic.

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